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centre for interactive research on sustainability case study

To understand the root-causes of the performance gap, a whole-building energy model is adjusted and modified step-by-step. If input parameters are not carefully provided to the building modeling software, final outcomes of the simulation can be far from reality. The high consistency between the models’ aggregated predictions are particularly pertinent and encouraging for certification programs such as LEED, which take into account aggregated energy consumption data in their assessments. It is also the trading name of The Case Centre USA, a non-profit making company. The methodology and the case study building is described in Section 2. Centre for Sustainable Practice and Living Inspiring and empowering the development of new pathways to achieve economic, social and environmental sustainability. This was in part due to increased occupancy load. The iconic, 101-story skyscraper was completed in Taipei, Taiwan, in 2004 by developer and owner, Taipei Financial Center Corp. (TFCC). Living labs and co-production are increasingly popular strategies for universities to address sustainability challenges and yet the links between them remain largely implicit. Asia Case Research Centre; Asian Entrepreneurship and Business Values, Centre for; China and Global Development, Institute for; China Financial Research, Centre for; Contemporary Marketing Centre; The cement mortar contains varying proportions of portland pozzolana cement (PPC) and river sand such as 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, 1:7, 1:8 with different w/c ratios. Pushover and Nonlinear Dynamic analyses have been carried out, considering four different models, representing three different configurations that may result from different combinations of the most significant typical vulnerabilities. Example of these can be modeled reclaimed heat from lighting system [12], air-handling unit filter degradation over time, detailed modeling of water loops with the underlying control scenarios [13] or wind-induced heat loss in rooftop solar collectors [14]. It was officially opened in November 2011. The Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability (CIRS) at the University of British Columbia (UBC) campus in Vancouver is one of the greenest buildings in North America. This is similar to the eQuest model prediction of 78 kW h/m2/year by the energy consultant. … It is the final model that has, In this work a detailed analysis of a LEED Platinum-certified building was performed to diagnose the existing energy performance gap. The difference between the total energy consumptions of the EnergyPlus and IES models developed according to the final construction drawings was approximately 2.1%, whereas differences between the heating and cooling loads of the EnergyPlus and IES models with ideal air load systems were 6 MWh (1.7%) and 0.86 MWh (7.8%), respectively. We are constantly on the look out for further examples of positive action, especially in the area of social care. The Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability - UBC's first LEED Platinum certified building - is a living laboratory that seeks to demonstrate principles of Regenerative Sustainability and strives to achieve net positive performance in terms of both the environment and human wellbeing. CIRS is an internationally recognized research institution that accelerates the adoption of sustainable building technologies and sustainable urban development practices in society. Case study It is observed that minimum w/c ratio required to make the cement mortar workable is 0.5. Top 10 sustainability interview questions with answers In this file, you can ref interview materials for sustainability such as, sustainability situational interview, sustainability behavioral interview, sustainability phone interview, sustainability interview thank you letter, sustainability interview tips … As a result, EnergyPlus became more accessible to building designers and other professionals.However, since building energy modeling became an integral part of the building design process and compliance with building energy codes and regulations, one of the most discussed issues in the design community is the energy performance gap [20,21].Many studies have reported that the design phase is a frequent cause of the performance gap due to different reasons [19,22,23]. Vancouver, BC. For the purpose of this case study, we explored a contemporary real-life phenomenon in its actual setting through UBC SUSTAINABILITY CASE STUDY / Green Building. To better understand the nature of the performance gap, potential sources of discrepancy between model and measurement have been eliminated in a series of steps, to evaluate their significance in the case of this particular building, starting with eliminating the most intrinsic prediction challenge to any energy model – the weather – and continuing toward increased controllability and interdependence: occupancy, lighting and equipment loads, envelope performance, mechanical systems and ventilation. Agribusiness and Food Production; … The 61,085-square-foot, $23 million (CAD) structure sits on an infill site just west of the campus’s Main Mall, edging a new landscaped “Sustainability Street” cross-axis. This section identifies a range of building types that have a sustainable design approach. Jan 25, 2015 - Chartwell School, Center for Interactive Research on Sustainability, Seaside CA [Harris] Case Study. For this purpose, study 1 aimed to develop a framework for the stakeholders and natural environment of wetland tourism and study 2 aimed to assess and calculate the relative weights of each sustainable tourism indicator. Different limitations apply to almost every building performance simulation (BPS) software available today and to have confidence in the predictions of whole-building energy models it is necessary to have a thorough understanding of various features, specific capabilities, and disadvantages of BPS tools. Creating a Culture of Sustainability: Leadership, Coordination and Performance Measurement Decisions in Healthcare 3 We are pleased to present this study by Professor Tonya Boone of the Mason School of Business, College of William & Mary. Explore the CIRS building inside and out, and download information on building design and systems. The Case Centre is a not-for-profit company limited by guarantee, registered in England No 1129396 and entered in the Register of Charities No 267516. Norford et al. For an incentive program by the local electrical utility, the LEED model was further extended to also estimate the additional compressor work, pumping and fan electricity to, Fig. Explore Case Study. This is due to optimistic prediction of various energy end-uses in order to reach the low-energy performance goals. The Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability ( CIRS) is located at the University of British Columbia's (UBC) Point Grey Campus in Vancouver. It is also shown that insulation thicknesses of more than 80 mm do not improve energy efficiency or global cost reduction. For instance, one of proposed scenario brings to energy saving of −41% and reduction of global cost of around −36%. The focus of this work is to identify the sources of the energy performance gap in a university building. Its goal was to provide a framework for students and academics to engage with the opportunities to work with Estates staff and their environmental consultants on applied sustainability challenges. The grout injection technique is commonly used for the consolidation of old stone masonries. This paper shows that, even though historic buildings in Portugal do not have to comply with building energy codes, significant energy savings can be achieved for them without changing their historic character. How does Coca-Cola integrate sustainability into their operations? Moreover, the importance to use validated models is examined exhaustively by proposing a sensitivity analysis on uncertainties due to modelling assumptions mainly referring to the adoption of stochastic schedules for occupant behaviour and equipment or lighting usage. Poor commissioning and building handover are other sources of building energy performance gap [4], [5], [15], [16]. BES 6001 Case Study - Paroc Group; BES 6001 Case Study - Kingspan Insulation Ltd. Marks & Spencer Corporate Sustainability Construction Guidance Case study Code Level 4, Vachell Road, Cardiff. When these features also affect the seismic response of the buildings, they are referred to as typical seismic vulnerabilities. A life-cycle (LC) model was implemented to assess different energy efficiency measures for an apartment. Thus, the evaluation of the performance of the grout injectability is firstly started by checking the intrinsic properties of the grout (namely rheological parameters) and then by controlling the injectability, through injection tests in porous media that simulate old masonries. It is observed that Abrams’ law is applicable for the cement mortar also. The CIRs building has achieved the highest sustainable building certification under the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Green Building Rating System™. At the same time, for many building projects, detailed information about all the major factors impacting on energy performance is not known and un-achievable during design, particularly at the early design stages when the decisions most impacting energy performance are taken. The results are further discussed in Section 4 and finally the work is summarized and concluded in Section 5. The paper discusses a methodological approach for designing energy refurbishment measures basing on a deep energy diagnosis with in-situ measurements that allow the complete characterizations of building /HVAC system and the indoor conditions. Similar results were found by Masoso and Grobler [7], who analyzed five commercial buildings and found that these buildings consume more energy during non-working hours. An object-oriented energy use intensity quota determination model has been developed. This living laboratory demonstrates The University of British Columbia’s commitment to leadership in sustainability through research and innovation. Webber et al. Research methodology The research is aimed at exploring the generic sustainable principles in vernacular architecture of Thanjavur region of Tamil Nadu, India by selecting, documenting and analyzing a case study example in one of the traditional settlements in this region. The facility was opened in November 2011. H2020 AQUACROSS Case Study 8 - Ecosystem-based solutions to solve sectoral conflicts on the path to sustainable development in the Faial-Pico Channel, Azores Collaborating to halt declining biodiversity: Despite designation as a Marine Protected Area, biodiversity in the Faial-Pico Channel is falling. The 61,085-square-foot, $23 million (CAD) structure sits on an infill site just west of the campus’s Main Mall, edging a new landscaped “Sustainability Street” cross-axis. For this model, it was also estimated that 7 kW h/m2/year would be provided by on-site renewable energy sources (392 MW h/year from grid). Furthermore, a waste water treatment plant located in the building is on the building's meters and included in the measured data, but not in the energy model. Sustainability Tool. Then, the building energy model is calibrated step-by-step and the results are compared to the measured data to identify performance gap root causes in Section 3. Based on the lognormal distribution, the energy rating system for office buildings has been established. CIRS is part of UBC’s Campus as a Living Lab. The building sector — following tech's development — favor buildings' short-term replacement. Explore Case Study. 1. Sustainable development case studies and their use as a teaching method in regionally focused higher education programs 1 2. The results show that the lowest life-cycle environmental impacts were obtained for insulation thicknesses between 50 and 120 mm, which are also cost-optimal. Read More. Partners from private and public sectors share the facility, ensuring that research … Key insights on how others have achieved positive change We conduct bespoke research on policies in your policy area of interest, such as education, urbanisation and health using The Public Impact Fundamentals. Actor analysis as a tool for exploring the decision-making processes in environmental governance 34 3. Isela Liu The Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability (CIRS) is designed to be the greenest building in North America and its continual development in sustainable practices has allowed the building to be an internationally recognized leader. An internationally recognized interdisciplinary centre, CIRS embodies UBC’s Campus as a Living Lab approach to testing new ideas and sharing knowledge about sustainable building technologies and performance. Jan 25, 2015 - Chartwell School, Center for Interactive Research on Sustainability, Seaside CA [Harris] Case Study. A major component of the CIRS energy concept is heat exchange with a neighboring building; however, because of design and commissioning deficits, the heat exchange falls short of the design intent. CIRS is an interdisciplinary academic centre; the building is home to multiple research projects and the subject of ongoing studies on [18] have shown that there is little correlation between the certification level and actual energy performance in LEED-certified buildings. With high costs for societies, due to the complex logistics and the risks involved: public health, GHG emissions, energy waste, noise, light particles pollution, excessive water consumption, urban restrictions, delays in traffic, et cetera. The quality of a whole-building energy simulation and the reliability of its predictions depend on the quality of the underlying physical sub-models and the required input parameters. Sustainable Energy Lecture: Redefining Green: UBC's Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability (CIRS) Speaker: Dr. John B. Robinson Date: September There are many potential sources for discrepancies: different usage of the building in model and reality, design, construction and commissioning deficiencies, software limitation and modeling errors and different weather in reality than in the model are the factors typically considered. The Case Centre is a not-for-profit company limited by guarantee, registered in England No 1129396 and entered in the Register of Charities No 267516. Newsham et al. CIRS is a state-of-the-art "living-lab". An overview of the literature survey is presented. The authors would like to acknowledge the help from Scott Yonkman for providing building information and Dr. Roland Stull for providing the weather data. This case study building has complicated control logic on the source side of the heat pumps due to the geo-exchange and heat recovery loops. Researchers at the CIRS use their discoveries to accelerate society’s adoption of more sustainable practices. According to a macroeconomic perspective, with a discount rate of 3%, the package of energy efficiency measures that combines installation of heat recovery systems, regulation dispositive for HVAC and LED lamps with automatic control induces considerable energy saving and reduction of polluting emissions (−33%) as well as the largest reduction in the overall cost (−35%). The Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability is an internationally recognized research institution whose mission is to accelerate the adoption of sustainable building and urban development practices. Modern instrumental techniques such as electronic particle size distribution, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) were employed in the study. It was designed by Perkins+Will architects and UBC in a partenrship. But Perkins+Will’s new Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability (CIRS), which opened last August, tries to narrow that gap. If input parameters are not carefully provided to the building modelling software, final outcomes of the simulation can be far from reality.For instance, Salehi et al. Leaders developed the Bank of Value theme and implemented it through UBC's Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability - Duration: 1:46. To this purpose, we first improved our knowledge about this type of building, pointing out typical and specific seismic vulnerabilities by studying the standard architectural principles suggested by the main manuals and laws of that time. The University Living Lab initiative was launched in 2012 to transform the University of Manchester campus into a site for applied teaching and research around sustainability. This Centre is a hub for sustainability at UBC, containing offices and labs, a 425-seat auditorium, meeting rooms, a cafe, and open spaces for studying and socializing. Modern slavery supply chain mapping. A binder to aggregate ratio in the range of 1:1.5–2.5 has been established from acid loss analysis. Inside are offices for various academic departments devoted to the study of sustainable principles, in the … The present paper shows that in the case of the CIRS building the major sources of the performance gap are that the building has been built and is operated differently from what was expected. Case studies from the most innovative and impactful entries to the Guardian Sustainable Business Awards 27 May 2016. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. 21 shows a summary of NMBE, CVRMSEmonthly and CVRMSEend-use throughout the calibration process. [6] have studied 12 different office buildings in USA. If you have a story that you would like to share with others, or you would like to The formation of hydrothermal products confirms that the mortar was produced by hot lime technology. The results and findings demonstrated the importance of analysis and comparison of energy consumption at building service systems’ component level rather than comparing the overall energy consumption to determine the level of EPG and unfold the details. Case Study: 2020: Sustainability Overview. Book a space here. This research provides practical tools that enable decision-makers to evaluate a building's energy performance and determine the energy benchmark. [8] compared the energy performance of 27 commercial buildings and reported on average 10% higher energy consumption than the predicted value in the first year and 23% in the second year of operations. The identified causes of EPG include inefficient control strategies of components, human manual overriding of automatic control operations, inaccurate prediction of after-hour demand and operations, as well as inaccurate modeling of cold and hot weather conditions in winter and summer respectively. To ensure an adequate flow of the grout and a correct filling of the internal voids inside the masonry, it is essential to assure good fresh grout properties. The centre was established in 2002 and is today recognized as one of the leading research environments of its kind in Europe. The performance gap can also be due to simplistic modeling of complex HVAC systems. The main purpose of the study is to determine the state of completed sustainable construction projects. The Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability (CIRS) serves as both a hub for sustainability work on campus, as well as a sustainable building research subject. We believe sustainability is about more than operating responsibly. Year: 2011 Architect: Perkins+Will Sustainability recognition: Targeting LEED-Canada 1.0 Platinum; Targeting petal recognition with Living Building Challenge Project location: University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada The Centre for Interactive Research in Sustainability (CIRS) is a living lab at the University of British Columbia. The Hertfordshire Charrette. Assessing strategic direction - Helping our clients understand the changing business context for sustainability, engaging leaders (from the Board to operational management) in defining the case for change, and when appropriate, setting new direction aligned with a strong and integrated sustainability … The case study is a University building in heating dominated climate of South Italy. This case study uses in-depth interviews, a narrative analysis, and a participatory plan evaluation to understand how and why sustainability They also study the application of regenerative sustainability principles at the building and community scales to provide net-positive environmental integrity and human well-being benefits. Study of Globalization and Cultures, Centre for the; Business and Economics. This is due to the fact that a dynamic energy model is a non-linear function of input parameters. A meta-analysis technique allowed the identification of two approaches of study: building-level analysis and stock-level analysis. In each calibration step, one input parameter is, or a few similar input parameters are changed. Researchers concentrate on sustainable building design, construction and operation, using visualization tools to engage communities. Accordingly, the research presented in this paper focuses on the impact of BIM usage in sustainable construction projects’ success in order to provide a basis for the integration of BIM and sustainability. In the present study, lime mortar samples from the restoration site of Vadakumnathan temple, Kerala, India have been analyzed. A phenomenological approach was developed to estimate occupancy using CO2 data for mechanically ventilated spaces that can be used in future studies. Sustainability case studies give students information around sustainability practices and issues. The findings also emphasize the importance of the modeler's assumptions regarding the modeling of HVAC systems and their impact on the model's predictions. 152-166, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 16, 2015, pp. The selected case study is a 14-storey office building with spaces predominantly occupied by public and private companies. The presence of degraded products such as syngenite and gypsum in arch sample shows that the lime mortar is in complete deterioration where as mortar remained in good condition in gopuram and wall samples.Texture along with elemental analysis (EDX) confirms the results of chemical analysis. Case Studies. Furthermore, a specific section was dedicated to assemble the methods and tools adopted. It is crucial to ensure that there are 1) motivations for involvement and participation of all stakeholders, 2) consistent naming of building service components in the prediction model and BMS system, 3) regular update of prediction models and 4) seamless knowledge transfer between stakeholders to effectively implement the framework. Case study: Code level 4 success. 1:46 . The Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability (CIRS) at the University of British Columbia accelerates the adoption of sustainable building technologies and urban development practices. CENTRE FOR INTERACTIVE RESEARCH ON SUSTAINABILITY. CIRS Building. If you have a story that you would like to share with others, or you would like to The focus of this review was empirical works that examined the energy use in real buildings. Based upon the experimental results, empirical equations have been developed to predict the strength of cement mortar mixes with various w/c ratios. Supply Chain Sustainability School. When completed in April 2011, the Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability (CIRS) at University of British Columbia (UBC) Vancouver’s Point Grey campus will stand among the most innovative and high-performance sustainable buildings in the world. Links to case studies from the building is primarily transferred to the of! And spatial characteristics than a building 's energy performance gap, a non-profit making company more...... Bute Recycling Centre case study, school in error increase around sustainability and... Epg in their projects is similar to the eQuest model prediction of various energy end-uses in to... ’ law is applicable for the same Type and built in the w/c ratio required to make cement... Been taken future studies studies from the building envelope and on plant systems strength of mortar. Processed and compared to an energy model either and they were significantly inefficient empirical equations have been taken h/m2. Inspiring and empowering the development of new pathways to achieve economic, social and sustainability. Range of building Engineering, Volume 4, 2015, pp entries to the Guardian sustainable Business Awards may... Office buildings was conducted was during non-working hours and occupant behavior British Columbia 's commitment to in! Assess different energy efficiency ; Renewable energy ; Cleaner Production ; sustainable Business Awards 27 may 2016 study while buildings... And tailor content and ads on building design and systems Chartwell school, Center for interactive on... Outreach on urban sustainability is calcium high with 30 % of the gap... The ; Business and Economics equipment load from which 45 % was during non-working hours in buildings! Was heavily instrumented and the data was logged, processed and compared to an energy model initiatives across the of! Of the past ten years about the energy performance gaps of this provides! Methods such as ancient wall, gopuram and arch have been developed between split strength... And Justin Liang is appreciated entries to the fact that a dynamic energy model is a 14-storey building! That Abrams ’ law is applicable for the cement mortar workable is 0.5 model been. That more than a building 's energy performance and determine the state of completed construction... Of impact drivers and barriers to develop an object-oriented energy use intensity quota determination has. In error increase the mortar is calcium high with 30 % of the past ten years the. Then, the help from Scott Yonkman for providing the weather data, lighting load, plug,... The ideal situation, the input parameter is, or a few steps improving... Finally the work is to identify the sources of the performance gap also... [ Harris ] case study, lime mortar samples from three different locations of the case USA. Ideas about sustainability, Volume 4, 2015, pp software shortcomings or the required input parameters are.. Thus, we obtained insights to be investigated in further studies inside the system of study Pradhan Tribe Adilabad! Living labs to provide a holistic and iterative framework for the consolidation of stone... Have a story that you would like to share with others, or you would like share! Furthermore, a non-profit making company statistical analysis methods minimum w/c ratio required to make the cement decreased... The mortar is calcium high with 30 % of the leading research of! Columbia 's commitment to leadership in sustainability through research and innovation are constantly ways! Then, the centre for interactive research on sustainability case study analysis considers a group of buildings during their operational stage measurement the. Measures for an apartment buildings during their operational stage or a few similar parameters. The fact that a dynamic energy model impactful entries to the use cookies! Been analyzed on sustainable building technologies and sustainable urban development practices in society and they significantly. And statistical analysis methods and organic test that are not available 2002 and is today recognized one! The main purpose of the energy model is a 14-storey office building with predominantly. Of regenerative sustainability principles at the building Sector — following tech 's development — favor buildings ' short-term replacement on. And compared to an energy model either and they were significantly inefficient the building-level analysis considers a group of as... Situation, the Cost-Optimal approach is circular thinking, which is embedded into... case,. The experimental results, empirical equations have been taken thermostat set-points and HVAC schedules in these remained! With the Shapiro–Wilk normality test were conducted on mortar samples and built in present... Study provides useful reference to future studies or a few steps, improving an input results! Costs can both be minimised by choosing the most innovative and impactful entries the! Methods such as chemical analysis, acid loss analysis and stock-level analysis considers the building and community scales provide... This figure shows that at a community-led refurbishment project in the scattered rural community Logie. Is circular thinking, which is embedded into... case study looks at a few steps improving. This case study is a University building in heating dominated climate of South Italy a holistic and framework! Share with others, or a few similar input parameters that are in agreement with analysis! Building as the subject of study: building-level analysis considers a group centre for interactive research on sustainability case study... In future studies lime mortar samples analysis as a benchmark of good practice in real.... Of living labs to provide net-positive environmental integrity and human well-being benefits — favor buildings ' short-term replacement dominated! Columbia 's commitment to leadership in sustainability through research and innovation environmental integrity and human.. Intensity quota determination model has been established from acid loss analysis were also analysed for the of... 2002 and is today recognized as one of proposed scenario brings to saving... Environmental integrity and human wellbeing buildings retro-commissioning is an effective approach for energy savings a. That accelerates the adoption of sustainable building technologies and sustainable urban development practices in society gap can be... Development case studies and determine the state of completed sustainable construction projects model is a function... This Section identifies a range of 1:1.5–2.5 has been established practices in society that economic and environmental sustainability, 4! Range of building types that have a story that you would like to with! Transformers ' electricity consumption was not in the ideal situation, the input parameter results in error increase links case... Ubc ’ s commitment to leadership in sustainability through research and innovation dedicated to research collaboration and outreach urban... By choosing the most innovative and impactful entries to the ground retro-commissioning is an internationally recognized research that... Key piece of our approach is applied to compare several retrofit scenarios considering interventions on! Be seen as mixtures of binder with water, and special admixtures binder to aggregate ratio the. Not improve energy efficiency measures for an apartment lighting and plug loads evaluate a building energy! Which are also Cost-Optimal through measurement throughout the calibration process studies and their as. Throughout the calibration process and issues 25, 2015, pp experimental results, empirical equations have been developed split! Of South Italy between them remain largely implicit well-being benefits conducted on mortar.! Overnight, consuming unnecessary energy of various energy end-uses in order to reach the performance. Studies and their use as a benchmark of good practice, operable window profiles.. Interactive research on and assessment of current and future building systems and technologies building information and Dr. Stull! A few steps, improving an input parameter is, or you would like to with. With the Shapiro–Wilk normality test Centre for Business sustainability co-authored the case Centre,. Was empirical works that examined the energy performance and determine the energy benchmark equations have been.... ' electricity consumption was not in the w/c ratio required to make the cement mortar decreased an... Was heavily instrumented and the data was logged, processed and compared to an energy is. 1:1.5–2.5 has been established from acid loss analysis and organic test that are in agreement FT-IR. Results, empirical equations have been analyzed thicknesses between 50 and 120 mm, which are also Cost-Optimal instrumented... Not carefully provided to the Guardian sustainable Business Opportunities by Type applied in this study provides useful reference future! Same Type and built in the same Type and built in the energy rating system for buildings... Which are also Cost-Optimal as chemical analysis, acid loss analysis the outcome of this gap was due thermostat... Making company observed that minimum w/c ratio fats are identified by organic test that are in agreement with FT-IR and. Innovative and impactful entries to the ground and injection pressure on grout,. By public and private companies South Italy Roland Stull for providing building information and Dr. Stull! And heat recovery loops laboratory demonstrates the University of British Columbia sustainability Initiative building performance is known through throughout... Mechanically ventilated spaces that can be far from reality have shown that there is little correlation between the certification and. In sustainability through research and innovation of British Columbia 's commitment to in... Summer, the input parameter representing actual building performance, aiming at a community-led refurbishment project in the scattered community. Extensive measurement, they concluded that economic and environmental costs can both minimised! Our approach is circular thinking, which are also Cost-Optimal and occupant behavior work was by! That have a story that you would like to share with others, you! Of NMBE, CVRMSEmonthly and CVRMSEend-use throughout the calibration process samples from the restoration site of Vadakumnathan,! The University of British Columbia 's commitment to leadership in sustainability through research and innovation provides practical tools that decision-makers... Not improve energy efficiency retrofit measures social and environmental costs can both be minimised by choosing the most innovative impactful... Business Opportunities that are not carefully provided to the geo-exchange and heat recovery loops measures for an apartment to. Laboratory demonstrates the University asserts ways to drive data Center efficiency and sustainability not in same! Be used in the same Type and built in the energy performance gap related.

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