3d Steve

why did britain colonize the middle east?

British government representatives in the age of empire may have had the power to dictate or otherwise transform Middle Eastern political destinies, but colonial encounters with the Middle East and other parts of the empire had a substantial impact on British society, culture, and national identity as well. Responding to Nasser's maneuver, Britain and France, in alliance with Israel, declared war on Egypt. 16 Oct. 2020 . First, Britain invited Faisal (Sharif Husayn's son, who had been ousted from the leadership of a nascent Arab Kingdom in Damascus by the French) to become king of British-mandated Iraq in 1921—thus creating the Hashimite Kingdom of Iraq, which lasted until a violent leftist coup in 1958. I mmediately following the end of World War II…, British Association for the Advancement of Science, British Columbia Institute of Technology: Narrative Description, British Columbia Institute of Technology: Tabular Data, British Imperial System of weights and measures, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/british-colonialism-middle-east, Britain and the Middle East from 1914 to the Present, Independence and Decolonization, Middle East. The most controversial history of post-World War I British imperialism in the region pertains to Palestine. Together with new technologies—above all, the steamship, the railway, and the telegraph—the Suez Canal transformed Britain's contacts with India by dramatically reducing travel time. Matar, N. I. Turks, Moors, and Englishmen in the Age of Discovery. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. By the time the fighting stopped and the dust settled, an estimated 700,000 Arabs, or 60 percent of Palestine's Arab population, had fled from their homes and were barred by Israelis from returning. (In 1932 Britain granted Iraq a form of official, yet nominal independence: it was nominal because Britain reserved control over Iraq's military and communications and retained a major share in Iraq's burgeoning oil industry.) Determined to secure revenues to fund the extension of the Aswan Dam, Egypt's president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, declared the nationalization—that is, the Egyptian government seizure—of the Suez Canal, which a British-French consortium had long owned and operated for the sake of the tolls that ships paid to go through it. Dominating the Middle East would have guaranteed regular resistance and necessitated garrisoning of every major city. (dhimmis). The situation in Palestine was reaching an impasse just as World War II broke out. Napoleon Bonaparte's invasion of Egypt in 1798, and the subsequent occupation of the country that was ended by British and Ottoman forces in 1801, has often been seen as the moment marking the beginning of the Middle East's "modern" history, a fact demonstrating the salience of imperialism in Europe-centered conceptions of history, and overlooking internal developments in the region as well as its connections with and beyond Europe in the eighteenth century. Bidwell, Robin, ed. In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, Vol. London, England It is worth noting that Britain's protection of Ottoman territorial integrity did not apply to Greece, where an anti-Ottoman nationalist revolt broke out in 1821. However the foundations that this conspiracy rests Africa-Europeans seized Africa virtually during 1875-1900.South Asia-The Europeans were able to take control of the international trade in Asia. The Middle East and the West: Carving Up the Region Napoleon's foray into Egypt in 1798 began a long string of European adventures in the Middle East. Bethesda, MD: University Publications of America, 1997. 2nd ed. HISTORY OF COLONIZATION IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA (MENA): PRECURSOR TO COLD WAR CONFLICT January 11, 2013 by Lisa Reynolds Wolfe COUNTRIES WHICH HAD BEEN ANCIENT EMPIRES BUT WERE NEVER OFFICIALLY COLONIZED Series B, Turkey, Iran, and the Middle East, 1918–1939. Born March 9, 1881 As oil revenues began to transform this poor region into the Middle East's wealthiest corner, Britain began to withdraw. In the 1920's, after the First World War, the Middle East was colonized mostly by France, Spain, Britain, and Italy. By the end of World War I, nationalism was arguably a stronger and more coherent force in Egypt than in any other Arabic-speaking country. If the Axis powers took over the Middle East, they would also, of course, gain control of the region’s enormous oil reserves. Though Iran's Pahlavi monarch, Reza Shah, declared Iran to be neutral when World War II broke out, British suspicions regarding his wartime sympathies prompted the shah in 1941 to abdicate in favor of his son, Mohammed Reza, as a way of safeguarding the monarchy. Hoping to raise the needed funds, the Egyptian government sold its 44 percent stake in the Suez Canal Company to the British government, to no avail. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/british-colonialism-middle-east. Competition with the other growing European imperial powers also prompted Britain's closer involvement in the Ottoman Empire, which British sources of the time portrayed as a "Sick Man of Europe" that needed to be propped up. Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450. . When the war ended in 1918, Britain faced the impossible task of implementing and reconciling the three, mutually contradictory agendas of the Husayn-McMahon Correspondence, the Sykes-Picot Agreement, and the Balfour Declaration. British Documents on Foreign Affairs: Reports and Papers from the Foreign Office Confidential Print, Part 2: From the First to the Second World War. The subsequent Fall of the Western Roman Empire therefore, had minimal direct impact on the region. But the most interesting face in the history of the Middle East region can be limited to the Arab society at large, which we feel are rich in culture and tradition despite outsiders influence in the time gone by. It can also be described as an ideology of superiority.However, the root of the word comes from the Latin word colonus (farmer) and thus is frequently used to address the practice of population transfer from one territory to another. While the Balfour Declaration reflected a degree of British official sympathy with Zionist aspirations, it also may have served British strategic interests: first, by building wartime support among the Jews in Europe and North America, and second, by bolstering postwar British claims to influence over the territory to the northeast of the Suez Canal. Influencing Britain's policy was philhellenism, a romantic fascination with ancient Greece that inspired the English poet Lord Byron, among other intellectuals, to join the Greek Revolt. Colonization, or colonisation is the establishing of colonies. Empire Building: Orientalism and Victorian Architecture. Along with France, Britain played the leading role in dismantling the Ottoman Empire after World War I and in creating new government entities in the Fertile Crescent, that is, future nation-states. In 1856, for example, Britain helped to persuade the Ottoman sultan to issue the famous Humayun decree (one of the landmark measures of the mid-nineteenth-century Ottoman Tanzimat, or reformist, period), which proclaimed religious equality among Muslims, Christians, and Jews. Encyclopedia.com. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981. Boston: Bedford/St. The Other Empire: British Romantic Writings about the Ottoman Empire. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. Roger, and Roger Owen, eds. In the 1870s Ottoman policymakers in Istanbul, and their counterparts under the leadership of Khedive Ismail (the grandson of Muhammad Ali) in Egypt, began to take out loans from French and British businesses for the sake of pursuing westernizing, modernizing reforms. Opposition to the Zionist agenda grew slowly among members of Palestine's non-Jewish majority (i.e., those who later became known as the Palestinians) and escalated into a series of clashes in the years after 1929, when the non-Jewish population was still estimated at 85 percent and when the landless Arab peasant population was growing, particularly as wealthy Arab landowners sold their property to Zionist settlers who extolled ideals of Jewish labor. Britain agreed to recognize and if necessary protect the signatories and their heirs, in return for gaining exclusive control over their foreign policy. Tignor, Robert L. Egyptian Textiles and British Capital, 1930–1956. Robinson, Ronald, and John Gallagher. Check out our latest post: The Cold War: Decolonization and Conflict in The Third World. A desire to protect the Suez route influenced Britain's decision to annex Aden (now part of Yemen), at the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula, in 1839. The last enclaves of British colonial influence in the Middle East were in the Gulf region. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. "Why did europeans turn the middle easy into catholics like in south America" Unless you mean "why didn't they", because they didn't have to. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. After 1798 the protection of India's northwest frontier became a dominant factor in Britain's policy in Iran. Moguls and Mandarins: Oil, Imperialism, and the Middle East in British Foreign Policy, 1900–1940. But in fact Britain kept a hold over Egypt for the next seventy years and only withdrew its last troops from the Suez Canal in 1956. How did this affect subsequent Allied campaigns in the Middle East… Sluglett, Peter. Of particular concern for British policy-setters were Ottoman territories in the Balkans, where fledgling local nationalist movements together with Russian and Austrian imperial ambitions threatened the region's stability. This essay surveys the history of British imperialism in the Middle East by examining four major periods of interaction: (1) the period of political and economic consolidation that occurred in the decades after the Napoleonic conquest of Egypt; (2) the period of formal entrenchment that began in 1882 with the British Occupation of Egypt and that included the World War I years of open warfare and behind-the-scenes scheming; (3) the post-World War I period when Britain dismantled the Ottoman Empire, redrew the region's political map, and claimed new territories under the guise of mandates; and (4) the post-World War II period of global decolonization. In 1919 Egyptian nationalists demanded the right to Egyptian self-determination (reflecting an ideal that U.S. president Woodrow Wilson had so famously articulated during the war) and called for an end to the British protectorate. see also Baring, Evelyn; British India and the Middle East; Mandate Rule. Second, and also in 1921, Britain invited Abdallah, another son of Sharif Husayn, to become emir of Transjordan, an arid and thinly populated region that Britain had gained with the Palestine mandate—but an area that was excluded from the sphere of Zionist settlement. The company, called the East India Company, was set While several key events stand Egypt, Islam, and the Arabs: The Search for Egyptian Nationhood, 1900–1930. Forgive the Pollyannaishness, but I don't understand why either nation would want to do what they did. 2: Modern Egypt. Understanding what each of these deals entailed and how they were later applied is critical to understanding the impact of British imperialism on the twentieth-century Middle East. from the far corners of the empire) went on to fight important engagements in the Dardanelles (the ill-fated Gallipoli campaign), Mesopotamia (in the region corresponding to what is now southern and central Iraq), and the Suez Canal zone and Greater Syria (culminating in the British entry into Jerusalem in December 1917). Winsford, Cheshire, England London: Longman, 1987. At the same time, Iran, newly consolidated under the Qajar dynasty (r. 1796–1925), was proving vulnerable to Russian expansion. The third objective was related to what nineteenth-century observers called the Eastern Question—that is, the challenge of preserving the Ottoman Empire in order to avoid inflaming both competition between the Great Powers and the generally contentious atmosphere created by Western imperial expansion. Porter, Andrew. Britain's vested interests in the Ottoman Empire also influenced its policies toward Egypt in the early twentieth century. Colonization as a concept has been superseded since the 20th century by the concept of state sovereignty. France and Britain agreed up front that in running these so-called mandates they should try to prepare these regions for eventual self-rule—that is, independence on some distant horizon. These representations constituted the early matter of what the literary critic Edward Said called Orientalism—that is, the body of stereotyped portrayals of the Islamic "Orient" that Western powers later used to justify their expansion in the Middle East. Muhammad Ali, the Ottoman army officer who established, consolidated, and expanded his hold over Egypt after the Anglo-Ottoman expulsion of the French army in 1801, had already conquered parts of the Sudan when he sent his son, Ibrahim Pasha, to take Ottoman Syria in 1831. Furthermore, as historians increasingly acknowledge, cultural and social influence was reciprocal. This division of spoils - which also included a share for Russia - demonstrates the Allies' attitude towards the people of the Middle Eas… London: Routledge/Curzon, 2004. British businesses accounted for at least half of Iran's foreign trade by the mid-nineteenth century, exchanging manufactured goods and textiles for Iranian carpets, silk, and other raw agricultural materials. Why did European nations such as Britain colonize countries in the Middle East in the beginning of the twentieth century? The third objective was related to what nineteenth-century observe… Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Britain was a major supplier of cheap colored cotton textiles (which constituted more than half of its exports to the Middle East until the 1870s) and also supplied what some economic historians call colonial goods—commodities such as Caribbean sugar and Indian tea that came from the larger British empire. It retained this role as late as World War I, notwithstanding the growing prominence of Germany and Italy in the region's economy during the late nineteenth century. During World War I, oil made its debut as a major political factor in the region. 5th ed. In Egypt in 1881, a nationalist uprising broke out against a backdrop of widespread economic distress and growing anti-European sentiment. Learn more about the history of the classification of the region in this article. Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450. . Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1984–1985. Codell, Julie F., and Dianne Sachko Macleod. Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450. . A concept coined in the initial stage of the Greek War of Independence (1821–1829) to describe the territorial effect of the political decline of the…, Great Britain, officially United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutional monarchy (2011 pop. Cleveland, William L. A History of the Modern Middle East. In nationalizing the canal, Nasser drew some inspiration from the Iranian Prime Minister, Mohammed Mossadegh, who had tried to nationalize the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company in 1953 (until a CIA-backed coup in Iran had thwarted his efforts). Britain never fulfilled its wartime promises to Sharif Husayn of Mecca in their entirety but made three gestures toward the Hashimites. Here’s how and why a simple trading company, the British East India Company, became one of the biggest challenges the subcontinent had ever dealt with. The San Remo Conference separated the Arab provinces from the Ottoman Empire and allocated spheres of influence to France and Britain, drawing the outlines for the country borders that we see today on the Middle East map. In fact, Britain had its eye on Palestine and was toying with the idea of building a railway from Haifa to Basra—a plan that would have yielded a direct route from the eastern Mediterranean to the Persian Gulf, and at the same time secure yet another route to India. Louis, Wm. Yet it is important to note that Britons in the Middle East not only included government officials but also missionaries, travelers, soldiers, merchants, archaeologists, and many others—that is, a diverse group of historical actors who exerted cultural, political, and economic influences in their own right. Taking over a group of sovereign states (like the Middle East) wouldn't be colonization, it would be occupation. London: Ithaca, 1976. The British navy switched from coal to oil fuel in 1912; in 1914, as the war began, the British government bought most of the AIOC shares. Kennedy, Dane. Yapp, Malcolm. In the long run, Britain was arguably the most important of these powers in shaping the region's political destiny. The occupation was important, however, in that it eff…

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