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new testament canon timeline

It was his attempt that set in motion the long process in the church that ended with the New Testament we have today. 382 AD: Bibliography on the Canon for beginning students. [117], Bishop Amphilochius of Iconium, in his poem Iambics for Seleucus[119] written some time after 394, discusses debate over the inclusion of a number of books that should be received, and seems uncertain about the later Epistles of Peter and John, Jude, and Revelation. Unger informs us that scholars have arbitrarily divided the canonization of the New Testament into five periods ranging from the first century to its ratification in 397 AD. When then it had lived honorably in chastity, and had labored with the Spirit, and had cooperated with it in everything, behaving itself boldly and bravely, he chose it as a partner with the Holy Spirit; for the career of this flesh pleased [the Lord], seeing that, as possessing the Holy Spirit, it was not defiled upon the earth. The list includes films, television episodes, novels, comic books, short stories, video games, and other promotional material. "[21] A defined set of four gospels (the Tetramorph) was asserted by Irenaeus, c. 180, who refers to it directly. He spread his beliefs widely; they became known as Marcionism. [21][62][63] Scholars are divided on whether there is any evidence that Justin included the Gospel of John among the "memoirs of the apostles", or whether, on the contrary, he based his doctrine of the Logos on it. Bourgel, Jonathan, "Do the Synoptic Narratives of the Passion Contain a Stratum Composed in Judea on the Eve of the Great Revolt? The New Testament of the Coptic Bible, adopted by the Egyptian Church, includes the two Epistles of Clement. The word came to mean “authority” or “rule” when means of measurement, such as the span or the cubit, were transferred from a physical human authority or rule (e.g., a king) were marked on a reed or a stick. In the first list he included 22 of the pieces of literature now found in the New Testament. 3For the historical developments and factors involved, see esp. The New Testament canon refers to the group of books accepted as the authentic writings of the apostles and thus authoritative for teaching in the Church of God. [93][94][95] This is an excerpt from Metzger's translation:[96]. What follows is a “back-to-front” summary of the process by which the New Testament came to be recognized. Documenta Ecdesiastica Sacrum Scripturam Spectantia, Romae, apud Librarian! It has a 24-book Old Testament[116] and 24-book New Testament which provides syllable and line counts but omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and seems to question the epistles of John and Peter beyond the first. It also includes Psalm 151 and Psalm 152–155 and 2 Baruch. After the Council of Ephesus, the Church of the East became separated, and retained this canon of only 22-books (the Peshitta) up to the present day. Obtain Athanasius (Apol. He does think that the letter to the Corinthians, known now as 1 Clement, was of great worth but does not seem to believe that Clement of Rome was the one author (Book 3, Chapter 3, Verse 3) and seems to have the same lower status as Polycarp's Epistle (Book 3, Chapter 3, Verse 3). Timeline of the New Testament Canon. [126][127][128] It states "fourteen" Epistles of Paul, but F.F. As was natural in ages when ecclesiastical authority had not reached its modern centralization, there were sporadic divergences from the common teaching and tradition. Let the following books be esteemed venerable and holy by all of you, both clergy and laity. [8] Thus, while there was plenty of discussion in the Early Church over the New Testament canon, the "major" writings were accepted by almost all Christian authorities by the middle of the second century.[9]. In response to the heretical groups—Ireneaus singled out Marcion and the Ebionites—the bishop crafted an argument for four and only four Gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John (click and scroll down to 3.11.8). The annotated timeline below is not exhaustive, but it does indicate the major dates or periods that prompted the ecclesiastical consensus to accept these 27 pieces of literature as “canon.”. [105] Pamphili c. 330, 3.3.5 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPamphilic._330 (help) adds further detail on Paul: "Paul's fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed. Forty-two years later Athanasius still exerted significant authority over the Church. Bible > Timeline > New Testament. They were more conscious of the gradation of spiritual quality among the books that they accepted (e.g. Explanation given in, not yet complete at the time of the First Council of Nicaea in 325, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Development of the Old Testament canon § Eastern Orthodox Canon, "Chapter IX. 2 Peter 3:16 says: He [Paul] writes the same way in all his letters, speaking in them of these matters. The New Testament books receiving the most controversy were Hebrews, James, 2 Peter, 2 John, and 3 John. The New Testament - A Brief Overview 27 Books and 9 Authors A chronology is now appropriate in order to present a sequence of events both biblical and extra-biblical which affect the canon of the Bible, both Old Testament and New Testament. This is evidence that, perhaps as early as 200, there existed a set of Christian writings somewhat similar to what is now the 27-book NT, which included four gospels and argued against objections to them. [34] In c. 405, Pope Innocent I sent a list of the sacred books to a Gallic bishop, Exsuperius of Toulouse. The Apocalypse of John, also called Revelation, is counted as both accepted (Kirsopp. He therefore took the son as adviser and the glorious angels also, that this flesh too, having served the Spirit unblamably, might have some place of sojourn, and might not seem to have lost the reward for its service; for all flesh, which is found undefiled and unspotted, wherein the Holy Spirit dwelt, shall receive a reward.". Little else is known, though there is plenty of speculation. The Formation of the Canon of the New Testament, an essay by Benjamin Warfield. [64][65] Justin quotes the letters of Paul, 1 Peter, and Acts in his writings.[66]. Common standard measures in our day echo the curious history of how a human authority became the source of an inanimate object—like a ruler or a yardstick—used in many kinds of building and craftwork. Marcion of Sinope, a bishop of Asia Minor who went to Rome and was later excommunicated for his views, may have been the first of record to propose a definitive, exclusive, unique list of Christian scriptures, compiled sometime between 130–140 AD. [20] The Thirty-Nine Articles of 1563 for the Church of England and the Westminster Confession of Faith of 1647 for English presbyterians established the official finalizations for those new branches of Christianity in light of the Reformed faith. 322     Eusebius of Cæsaria’s Ecclesiastical History. The Development of the New Testament Canon. These then belong among the accepted writings [Homologoumena]. There are seven earliest attestors: Clement of Rome (85-100) Polycarp (100-155) Marcion … 315 AD: Athenasius, the Bishop of Alexandria, identifies the 27 books of the New Testament which are today recognized as the canon of scripture. The years in the New Testament timeline are approximate because, contrary to what logic would tell us, Jesus was not born at the fulcrum of B.C./A.D. Bible Timeline. By the 5th century, the Syriac Bible, called the Peshitta, was formalized, accepting Philemon, along with James, 1 Peter and 1 John, but excluding 2 John, 3 John, 2 Peter, Jude and Revelation. 4) recorded Alexandrian scribes around 340 preparing Bibles for Constans. The Armenian Bible introduces one addition: a third letter to the Corinthians, also found in the Acts of Paul, which became canonized in the Armenian Church, but is not part of the Armenian Bible today. The so-called Decretum Gelasianum de libris recipiendis et non recipiendis, is traditionally attributed to Pope Gelasius I, bishop of Rome 492–496 AD. Writings attributed to the apostles circulated among the earliest Christian communities. In the absence of a canonical list, the resolution of questions would normally have been directed through the see of Constantinople, in consultation with Bishop Eusebius of Caesarea (who was given the commission), and perhaps other bishops who were available locally. by Matt Slick The New Testament canon … The word “canon” has a semitic origin meaning “reed” (as in a woody plant growing wetlands). A chart that demonstrates the different councils, Canons, translations, and individuals and their views on what the New Testament was at the time. The late-5th or early-6th century Peshitta of the Syriac Orthodox Church[132] includes a 22-book NT, excluding II Peter, II John, III John, Jude, and Revelation. New Testament Studies 62.3 (2016): 461-476. The long process of the development of the canon of the New Testament can be traced through mentions of scriptures and lists of books that occur in Christian writings over the centuries.The earliest full list of the 27 books of our New Testament - no more, no less - was in a pastoral letter by St. Athanasius in 367 AD, about 50 years after Constantine's death. By the end of the 1st century, some letters of Paul were known to Clement of Rome (fl. Western Syrians have added the remaining 5 books to their NT canons in modern times (such as the Lee Peshitta of 1823). This process was not yet complete at the time of the First Council of Nicaea in 325, though substantial progress had been made by then. [120], Pope Damasus's commissioning of the Latin Vulgate edition of the Bible to Jerome,[4] c. 383, was instrumental in the fixation of the canon in the West. The decrees issued by the thirty or so clerics attending were called canons. His letters contain some things that are hard to understand, which ignorant and unstable people distort, as they do the other Scriptures, to their own destruction. [132][better source needed]. [133] The canon of the Tewahedo Churches is somewhat looser than for other traditional Christian groups, and the order, naming, and chapter/verse division of some of the books is also slightly different. The next two hundred years followed a similar process of continual discussion throughout the entire Church, and localized refinements of acceptance. A brief summary of the acts was read at and accepted by the Synod of Carthage (397) and Council of Carthage (419). And among these some have placed also the Gospel according to the Hebrews... And all these may be reckoned among the disputed books... such books as the Gospels of Peter, of Thomas, of Matthias, or of any others besides them, and the Acts of Andrew and John and the other apostles ... they clearly show themselves to be the fictions of heretics. 96), together with some form of the "words of Jesus"; but while Clement valued these highly, he did not refer to them as "Scripture" ("graphe"), a term he reserved for the Septuagint. The generally accepted theory is that the canon was completed late in the fourth century. In the Antithesis, he claimed the theology of the Old Testament was incompatible with the teaching of Jesus regarding God and morality. [33] Likewise, Damasus' commissioning of the Latin Vulgate edition of the Bible, c. 383, was instrumental in the fixation of the canon in the West. The 2nd part is a canon catalogue, and the 5th part is a catalogue of apocryphal writings which are to be rejected. And Marcion, as Burkitt and Bauer show, fills the bill perfectly. It contains twenty-two works now in the New Testament, but is also includes works that the church later abandoned as authoritative. Marcion created a definite group of books which he regarded as fully authoritative, displacing all others. Ferguson 2002 quotes Tertullian's De praescriptione haereticorum 30: Since Marcion separated the New Testament from the Old, he is necessarily subsequent to that which he separated, inasmuch as it was only in his power to separate what was previously united. Marcion rejected the theology of the Old Testament entirely and regarded the God depicted there as an inferior being. the supreme authority of Scripture alone. Acts 21:21 records a rumor that Paul aimed to subvert the Old Testament (against this rumor see Romans 3:8, 3:31). [137] Rejecting these, Protestant reformers focused on the doctrine of sola scriptura, i.e. 2 A work that deals more with this question of order than most do is William R. Farmer with Denis M. Farkasfalvy, The Formation of the New Testament Canon (New York: Paulist, 1983). [70] Against Heresies 3.11.7 acknowledges that many heterodox Christians use only one gospel while 3.11.9 acknowledges that some use more than four. The canon catalogue gives all 27 books of the Catholic New Testament. A second council was held at the Synod of Hippo (393) reaffirming the previous council list. [16] In 405, Pope Innocent I sent a list of the sacred books to a Gallic bishop, Exsuperius of Toulouse. 36. The Syriac Orthodox Church uses this text as well (known in the West Syriac dialect as the Peshitto), but with the addition of the other books normally present in the New Testament canon.

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